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Documentation of backend components and admin procedures for Toolforge. See Help:Toolforge for user facing documentation about actually using Toolforge to run your bots and webservices.


Tools should be able to survive the failure of any one virt* node. Some items may need manual failover


The front web proxy is now a stateless web service. In case one dies, swap the floating IP to the other instance.

Static webserver

This is a stateless simple nginx http server. Simply switch the floating IP from tools-static-10 to tools-static-11 (or vice versa) to switch over. Recovery is also equally trivial - just bring the machine back up and make sure puppet is ok.

Checker service

This is the service that catchpoint (our external monitoring service) hits to check status of several services. It's totally stateless, so just switching the public IP from tools-checker-03 to -04 (or vice versa) should be fine. Same procedure as static webserver.

See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Toolschecker


Redis uses Sentinel to automatically fail over in case of a node failure.


See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Prometheus#Failover.


This section needs a refresh. Webservicemonitor now runs in cron nodes, among other things

These are services that run off service manifests for each tool - currently just the webservicemonitor service. They're in warm standby requiring manual switchover. tools-services-01 and tools-service-02 both have the exact same code running, but only one of them is 'active' at a time. Which one is determined by the puppet role param role::labs::tools::services::active_host. Set that via hiera to the fqdn of the host that should be 'active' and run puppet on all the services hosts. This will start the services in appropriate hosts and stop them in the appropriate hosts. Since services should not have any internal state, they can be run from any host without having to switch back compulsorily.

Service nodes also run the Toolforge internal aptly service, to serve .deb packages as a repository for all the other nodes.

Command orchestration

Toolforge and Toolsbeta both have a local cumin server.

Administrative tasks

Logging in as root

For normal login root access see Portal:Toolforge/Admin#What_makes_a_root/Giving_root_access.

In case the normal login does not work for example due to an LDAP failure, administrators can also directly log in as root. To prepare for that occasion, generate a separate key with ssh-keygen, add an entry to the passwords::root::extra_keys hash in Horizon's 'Project Puppet' section with your shell username as key and your public key as value and wait a Puppet cycle to have your key added to the root accounts. Add to your ~/.ssh/config:

# Use different identity for Tools root.
Match host *.tools.eqiad1.wikimedia.cloud user root
     IdentityFile ~/.ssh/your_secret_root_key

The code that reads passwords::root::extra_keys is in labs/private:modules/passwords/manifests/init.pp.

Disabling all ssh logins except root

Useful for dealing with security critical situations. Just touch /etc/nologin and PAM will prevent any and all non-root logins.

Complaints of bastion being slow

Users are increasingly noticing slowness on tools-login due to either CPU or IOPS exhaustion caused by people running processes there instead of on Kubernetes. Here are some tips for finding the processes in need of killing:

  • Look for IOPS hogs
    • $ iotop
  • Look for abnormal processes:
    • $ ps axo user:32,pid,cmd | grep -Ev "^($USER|root|daemon|_lldpd|messagebus|nagios|nslcd|ntp|prometheus|statd|syslog|Debian-exim|www-data)" | grep -ivE 'screen|tmux|-bash|mosh-server|sshd:|/bin/bash|/bin/zsh'
    • If you see pyb.py kill with extreme prejudice.
  • If the rogue job is running as a tool, !log something like: !log tools.$TOOL Killed $PROC process running on tools-bastion-NN. See https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Toolforge/Jobs_framework for instructions on running jobs on Kubernetes.

Local package management

Local packages are provided by an aptly repository on tools-services-05.

On tools-services-05, you can manipulate the package database by various commands; cf. aptly(1). Afterwards, you need to publish the database to the file Packages by (for the trusty-tools repository) aptly publish --skip-signing update trusty-tools. To use the packages on the clients you need to wait 30 minutes again or run apt-get update. In general, you should never just delete packages, but move them to ~tools.admin/archived-packages.

You can always see where a package is (would be) coming from with apt-cache showpkg $package.

Local package policy

Package repositories

  • We only install packages from trustworthy repositories.
    • OK are
      • The official Debian and Ubuntu repositories, and
      • Self-built packages (apt.wikimedia.org and aptly)
    • Not OK are:
      • PPAs
      • other 3rd party repositories

Packagers effectively get root on our systems, as they could add a rootkit to the package, or upload an unsafe sshd version, and apt-get will happily install it

Hardness clause: in extraordinary cases, and for 'grandfathered in' packages, we can deviate from this policy, as long as security and maintainability are kept in mind.


We assume that whatever is good for production is also OK for Toolforge.


We manage the aptly repository ourselves.

  • Packages in aptly need to be built by Toolforge admins
    • we cannot import .deb files from untrusted 3rd party sources
  • Package source files need to come from a trusted source
    • a source file from a trusted source (i.e. backports), or
    • we build the debian source files ourselves
    • we cannot build .dcs files from untrusted 3rd party sources
  • Packages need to be easy to update and build
  • We only package if strictly necessary
    • infrastructure packages
    • packages that should be available for effective development (e.g. composer or sbt)
    • not: python-*, lib*-perl, ..., which should just be installed with the available platform-specific package managers
  • For each package, it should be clear who is responsible for keeping it up to date
    • for infrastructure packages, this should be one of the paid staffers

A list of locally maintained packages can be found under /local packages.

Building packages

Deploy new misctools package

Testing/QA for a new tools-webservice package

See also tools-webservice source tree README.

There is a simple flask app in toolsbeta using the tool test that is set up to be deployed via webservice on Kubernetes.

After running become test, you can go to the qa/tools-webservice directory. This is checked out via anonymous https, and is suitable for checking out a patch you are reviewing. There is an untracked file in there that is useful here, usually. The webservicefile at the route is just a copy of the one in the scripts folder in the repo. The only difference is:

< sys.path.insert(0, '')

That exchanges the distribution installed package in the python path for the local directory, so if you run ./webservice $somecommand it will run what is in your local folder rather than what is in /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/. If you are testing changes made directly to scripts/webservice in the repo, you will likely need to copy that over the file and add sys.path.insert(0, "") after the import sys line.

If there is no import sys line in this version of the code, add one! This should let you bang on your new version without having to mess with packaging, yet.

Deploy new tools-webservice package

Webserver statistics

To get a look at webserver statistics, goaccess is installed on the webproxies. Usage:

goaccess --date-format="%d/%b/%Y" --log-format='%h - - [%d:%t %^] "%r" %s %b "%R" "%u"' -q -f/var/log/nginx/access.log

Interactive key bindings are documented on the man page. HTML output is supported by piping to a file. Note that nginx logs are rotated (twice?) daily, so there is only very recent data available.

Banning an IP from tool labs

On Hiera:Tools, add the IP to the list of dynamicproxy::banned_ips, then force a puppet run on the webproxies. Add a note to Help:Toolforge/Banned explaining why. The user will get a message like [1].

Deploying the main web page

This website (plus the 403/500/503 error pages) are hosted under tools.admin. To deploy,

$ become admin
$ cd tool-admin-web
$ git pull

Regenerate replica.my.cnf

This requires access to the cloudcontrol host which is running maintain-kubeusers, and can be done as follows:

$ ssh cloudcontrolXXXX.wikimedia.org
$ sudo /usr/local/sbin/maintain-dbusers delete tools.${NAME} --account-type=tool
:# or
$ sudo /usr/local/sbin/maintain-dbusers delete ${USERNAME} --account-type=user

Once the account has been deleted, the maintain-dbusers service will automatically recreate the user account.

Debugging bad MariaDB credentials

Sometimes things go wrong and a user's replica.my.cnf credentials don't propigate everywhere. You can check the status on various servers to try and narrow down what went wrong.

The database credentials needed are in /etc/dbusers.yaml on the cloudcontrol host running maintain-dbusrs.

$ ssh cloudcontrolXXXX.wikimedia.org

$ sudo cat /etc/dbusers.yaml
:# look for the accounts-backend['password'] for the m5-master connections (user: labsdbaccounts)
:# look for the labsdbs['password'] for the other connections (user: labsdbadmin)

$ CHECK_UID=u12345  # User id to check for
:# Check if the user is in our meta datastore
$ mariadb -h m5-master.eqiad.wmnet -u labsdbaccounts -p -e "USE labsdbaccounts; SELECT * FROM account WHERE mysql_username='${CHECK_UID}'\G"

:# Check if all the accounts are created in the labsdb boxes from meta datastore.
$ ACCT_ID=.... # Account_id is foreign key (id from account table)
$ mariadb -h m5-master.eqiad.wmnet -u labsdbaccounts -p -e "USE labsdbaccounts; SELECT * FROM labsdbaccounts.account_host WHERE account_id=${ACCT_ID}\G"

:# Check the actual labsdbs if needed
$ mariadb -h clouddbXXXX.eqiad.wmnet -u labsdbadmin -p -e 'SELECT User, Password from mysql.user where User like "${CHECK_UID}";'

:# Resynchronize account state on the replicas by finding missing GRANTS on each db server
$ sudo maintain-dbusers harvest-replicas

See phab:T183644 for an example of fixing automatic credential creation caused when a old LDAP user becomes a Toolforge member and has an untracked user account on toolsdb.

Regenerate kubernetes credentials for tools (.kube/config)

With admin credentials (root on a control plane node will do), run kubectl -n tool-<toolname> delete cm maintain-kubeusers; it should get regenerated within minutes.

Adding K8S Components

See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Kubernetes#Building_new_nodes

Deleting a tool

For batch or CLI deletion of tools, use the 'mark_tool' command on a cloudcontrol node:

The awful truth about tool deletion
andrew@cloudcontrol1003:~$ sudo mark_tool
usage: mark_tool [-h] [--ldap-user LDAP_USER] [--ldap-password LDAP_PASSWORD]
                 [--ldap-base-dn LDAP_BASE_DN] [--project PROJECT] [--disable]
                 [--delete] [--enable]
mark_tool: error: the following arguments are required: tool

Maintainers can mark their tools for deletion using the "Disable tool" button on the tool's detail page on https://toolsadmin.wikimedia.org/. In either case, the immediate effect of disabling a tool is to stop any running jobs, prevent users from logging in as that tool, and schedule archiving and deletion for 40 days in the future.

A tool can be restored within 40 days of being disabled

Tool archives are stored on the tools NFS server, currently labstore1004.eqiad.wmnet:

root@labstore1004:/srv/disable-tool# ls -ltrah /srv/tools/archivedtools/
total 1.8G
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4.0K Jun 21 19:37 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 102K Jul 22 22:15 andrewtesttooltwo
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   45 Oct 13 00:47 andrewtesttooltwo.tgz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8.3M Oct 13 03:20 mediaplaycounts.tgz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.8G Oct 13 04:01 projanalysis.tgz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.3M Oct 13 21:05 reportsbot.tgz
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Oct 13 21:10 .
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 719K Oct 13 21:10 wsm.tgz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4.8K Oct 13 21:20 andrewtesttoolfour.tgz

The actual deletion process is shockingly complicated. A tool will only be archived and deleted if all of the prior steps succeed, but disabling of a tool should be a sure thing.

SSL certificates

See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/SSL_certificates.

Granting a tool write access to Elasticsearch

  • Generate a random password and the mkpassword crypt entry for it using the script new-es-password.sh. (Must be run a host with the `mkpasswd` command installed. (The mkpasswd is part of the whois Debian package.)
$ ./new-es-password.sh tools.example
tools.example elasticsearch.ini

tools.example puppet master private (hieradata/labs/tools/common.yaml)
  - name: 'tools.example'
    password: '$6$FYwP3wxT4K7O9EE$OA3P5972NWJVG/WUnD240sal34/dsNabbcawItevMYO9uoR.fJBrjSABex0EDW0wlkWHID1Tf4oJoiNvYFGmy/'
$ ssh tools-puppetmaster-02.tools.eqiad1.wikimedia.cloud
$ cd /var/lib/git/labs/private
$ sudo -i vim /var/lib/git/labs/private/hieradata/labs/tools/common.yaml
... paste in SHA512 crypt data ...
$ sudo git add hieradata/labs/tools/common.yaml
$ sudo git commit -m "[local] Elasticsearch credentials for $TOOL"
  • Force a puppet run on tools-elastic nodes using Cumin
tools-cumin-1:~$ sudo cumin "P{O:wmcs::toolforge::elastic7}" "run-puppet-agent"
  • Make the credentials available to the tool as envvars:
$ ssh dev.toolforge.org
$ sudo -i become example-tool
$ toolforge envvars create TOOL_ELASTICSEARCH_USER
Enter the value of your envvar (prompt is hidden, hit Ctrl+C to abort): <insert user>
$ toolforge envvars create TOOL_ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD
Enter the value of your envvar (prompt is hidden, hit Ctrl+C to abort): <insert password>

Note: An older procedure placed the credentials in /data/project/$TOOL/.elasticsearch.ini instead.

  • Resolve the ticket!

Package upgrades

See Managing package upgrades.

Creating a new Docker image (e.g. for new versions of Node.js)

See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Kubernetes#Docker_Images


See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Kubernetes

Build service

See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Build_Service

Tools-mail / Exim

See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Exim and Portal:Cloud_VPS/Admin/Email#Operations

Users and community

Some information about how to manage users and general community and their relationship with Toolforge.

Project membership request approval

User access requests show up in https://toolsadmin.wikimedia.org/tools/membership/

Some guidelines for account approvals, based on advice from scfc:

  1. If the request contains any defamatory or abusive information as part of the username(s), reason, or comments → mark as Declined and check the "Suppress this request (hide from non-admin users)" checkbox.
    • You should also block the user on Wikitech and consider contacting a Steward for wider review of the SUL account.
  2. If the user name "looks" like a bot or someone else who could not consent to the Terms of use and Rules → mark as Declined.
  3. Check the status of the associated SUL account. If the user is banned on one or more wikis → mark as Declined.
  4. If the stated purpose is "tangible" ("I want to move my bot x to Labs", "I want to build a web app that does y", etc.) → mark as Approved.
    • If you know that someone else has been working on the same problem, add a message explaining who the user should contact or where they might find more information.
  5. If the stated purpose is "abstract" ("research", "experimentation", etc.) and there is a hackathon ongoing or planned, the user has a non-throw-away mail address, the user has created a user page with coherent information about theirself or linked a SUL account of good standing, etc. → mark as Approved.
  6. Otherwise add a comment asking for clarification of their reason for use and mark as Feedback needed. The request is not really "denied", but more (indefinitely) "delayed".

Requests left in Feedback needed for more information for more than 30 days should usually be declined with a message like "Feel free to apply again later with more complete information."

Manually associate an LDAP account with wikitech

Developer accounts in the LDAP directory are often, but not always, attached to wikitech as wiki users. The wikitech account is automatically "attached" when the developer account CN and password are used to login to the wiki.

When a user with an active developer account that is not attached to wikitech is found who needs a password reset or blocking, a maintenance script can be run to force attach the account:

  1. Login to a wikitech host (ie, cloudweb1003.wikimedia.org)
  2. Check and confirm the LDAP information for the user. Lookup with:
    1. https://ldap.toolforge.org/user/$USER OR
    2. Query via https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/LDAP#Display_extended_info_about_a_user
  3. Run the maintenance script
    user@cloudweb1003:~$ mwscript extensions/LdapAuthentication/maintenance/attachLdapUser.php --wiki=labswiki --user=$user --email=$email
  4. Confirm the account creation by checking the wikitech new users log.

Quota management

Toolforge quotas are managed via maintain-kubeusers.

  • Send a patch for maintain-kubeusers, have it reviewed and merged:



How do Toolforge web services actually work?

See Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Kubernetes#Ingress

What makes a root/Giving root access

Users who need to do administrative work in Toolforge need to be listed at several places:

  1. OpenStack project administrator: This allows a user to add and delete other users from the Toolforge project.
  2. sudo policy "roots": This allows a user to use sudo to become root on Toolforge instances.
  3. 'admin' tool maintainer: This allows a user to log into infrastructure instances and perform tasks as the admin tool. (note that for toolsbeta you will need to add it through the command line using modify-ldap-group toolsbeta.admin from mwmaint1002)
  4. Gerrit group "toollabs-trusted": This allows a user to +2 changes in repositories exclusive to Toolforge.
  5. GitLab group repos/cloud/toolforge membership

Servicegroup log

tools.admin runs /data/project/admin/bin/toolhistory, which provides an hourly snapshot of ldaplist -l servicegroup as git repository in /data/project/admin/var/lib/git/servicegroups

Useful administrative tools

These tools offer useful information about Toolforge itself:

  • ToolsDB - Statistics about tables owned by tools
  • k8s-stats - examine what our tools are doing
  • OpenStack Browser - examine projects, instances, web proxies, and Puppet config


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